Optimize my.cnf configurations for MySQL?

Maxoq

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Joined
Feb 25, 2015
Messages
423
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I am leaving default configurations in my.cnf or just putting some lines in this file, I heard that if configure right way, your MySQL/MariaSQL will work best or give better performance. How can I optimize my.cnf configurations for MySQL or MariaSQL?
 

fiz

Well-known member
Joined
Aug 6, 2020
Messages
109
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Take a look at this cnf. It's well explained and very well optimized. Obviously, you need to adjust it according to your needs and hardware.
Bash:
# IMPORTANT NOTE: If there is NO comment after a setting value, then 99,9% of the times you won't need to adjust it.
#
#
# --- THINGS TO DO AFTER YOU UPDATE MY.CNF - TROUBLESHOOTING ---
#
# If any terminal commands are mentioned, make sure you execute them as "root" user.
#
# If MySQL or MariaDB cannot start (or restart), then perform the following actions.
#
# 1. If the server had the stock database configuration and you added or updated any
#    "innodb_log_*" settings (as suggested below), then execute these commands ONLY
#    the first time you apply this configuration:
#
#    $ rm -rvf /var/lib/mysql/ib_logfile*
#    $ chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql
#    $ service mysql restart
#
#    or use the shorthand command:
#    $ rm -rvf /var/lib/mysql/ib_logfile*; chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql; service mysql restart
#
# 2. If the setting "bind-address" is not commented out, then make sure the file /etc/hosts is
#    properly configured. A good example of a "clean" /etc/hosts file is something like this:
#
#    127.0.0.1 localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
#    ::1       localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
#    1.2.3.4   hostname.domain.tld hostname # <-- Replace accordingly!
#
#    Finally restart the database service:
#
#    $ service mysql restart
#
# 3. If the database service cannot restart even after the first 2 steps, make sure the database data folder
#    (common for either MySQL or MariaDB) "/var/lib/mysql" is owned by the "mysql" user AND group.
#    Additionally, the folder itself can have 0751 or 0755 file permissions. To fix it, simply do this:
#    $ chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql
#    $ chmod 0755 /var/lib/mysql
#
#    Finally restart the database service:
#
#    $ service mysql restart
#
#
# ~ FIN ~


[mysql]
port                            = 3306
socket                          = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock

[mysqld]
# Required Settings
basedir                         = /usr
bind_address                    = 127.0.0.1 # Change to 0.0.0.0 to allow remote connections
datadir                         = /var/lib/mysql
max_allowed_packet              = 256M
max_connect_errors              = 1000000
pid_file                        = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
port                            = 3306
skip_external_locking
skip_name_resolve
socket                          = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock

# Enable for b/c with databases created in older MySQL/MariaDB versions (e.g. when using null dates)
#sql_mode                       = ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES

tmpdir                          = /tmp
user                            = mysql

# InnoDB Settings
default_storage_engine          = InnoDB
innodb_buffer_pool_instances    = 2     # Use 1 instance per 1GB of InnoDB pool size
innodb_buffer_pool_size         = 2G    # Use up to 70-80% of RAM
innodb_file_per_table           = 1
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit  = 0
innodb_flush_method             = O_DIRECT
innodb_log_buffer_size          = 16M
innodb_log_file_size            = 512M
innodb_stats_on_metadata        = 0

#innodb_temp_data_file_path     = ibtmp1:64M:autoextend:max:20G # Control the maximum size for the ibtmp1 file
#innodb_thread_concurrency      = 4     # Optional: Set to the number of CPUs on your system (minus 1 or 2) to better
                                        # contain CPU usage. E.g. if your system has 8 CPUs, try 6 or 7 and check
                                        # the overall load produced by MySQL/MariaDB.
innodb_read_io_threads          = 64
innodb_write_io_threads         = 64

# MyISAM Settings
query_cache_limit               = 4M    # UPD - Option supported by MariaDB & up to MySQL 5.7, remove this line on MySQL 8.x
query_cache_size                = 64M   # UPD - Option supported by MariaDB & up to MySQL 5.7, remove this line on MySQL 8.x
query_cache_type                = 1     # Option supported by MariaDB & up to MySQL 5.7, remove this line on MySQL 8.x

key_buffer_size                 = 32M   # UPD

low_priority_updates            = 1
concurrent_insert               = 2

# Connection Settings
max_connections                 = 100   # UPD

back_log                        = 512
thread_cache_size               = 100
thread_stack                    = 192K

interactive_timeout             = 180
wait_timeout                    = 180

# For MySQL 5.7+ only (disabled by default)
#max_execution_time             = 30000 # Set a timeout limit for SELECT statements (value in milliseconds).
                                        # This option may be useful to address aggressive crawling on large sites,
                                        # but it can also cause issues (e.g. with backups). So use with extreme caution and test!
                                        # More info at: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/server-system-variables.html#sysvar_max_execution_time

# For MariaDB 10.1.1+ only (disabled by default)
#max_statement_time             = 30    # The equivalent of "max_execution_time" in MySQL 5.7+ (set above)
                                        # The variable is of type double, thus you can use subsecond timeout.
                                        # For example you can use value 0.01 for 10 milliseconds timeout.
                                        # More info at: https://mariadb.com/kb/en/aborting-statements/

# Buffer Settings
join_buffer_size                = 4M    # UPD
read_buffer_size                = 3M    # UPD
read_rnd_buffer_size            = 4M    # UPD
sort_buffer_size                = 4M    # UPD

# Table Settings
# In systemd managed systems like Ubuntu 16.04+ or CentOS 7+, you need to perform an extra action for table_open_cache & open_files_limit
# to be overriden (also see comment next to open_files_limit).
# E.g. for MySQL 5.7, please check: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/using-systemd.html
# and for MariaDB check: https://mariadb.com/kb/en/library/systemd/
table_definition_cache          = 40000 # UPD
table_open_cache                = 40000 # UPD
open_files_limit                = 60000 # UPD - This can be 2x to 3x the table_open_cache value or match the system's
                                        # open files limit usually set in /etc/sysctl.conf or /etc/security/limits.conf
                                        # In systemd managed systems this limit must also be set in:
                                        # /etc/systemd/system/mysqld.service.d/override.conf (for MySQL 5.7+) and
                                        # /etc/systemd/system/mariadb.service.d/override.conf (for MariaDB)

max_heap_table_size             = 128M
tmp_table_size                  = 128M

# Search Settings
ft_min_word_len                 = 3     # Minimum length of words to be indexed for search results

# Logging
log_error                       = /var/lib/mysql/mysql_error.log
log_queries_not_using_indexes   = 1
long_query_time                 = 5
slow_query_log                  = 0     # Disabled for production
slow_query_log_file             = /var/lib/mysql/mysql_slow.log

[mysqldump]
# Variable reference
# For MySQL 5.7: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/mysqldump.html
# For MariaDB:   https://mariadb.com/kb/en/library/mysqldump/
quick
quote_names
max_allowed_packet              = 64M
 
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fiz

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